International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 11 Issue 4, 2020 (October-December), Pages:22-28

In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Acetyl cholinesterase Activities of wild Ocimum Sanctum L. and Endangered HerP Swertia Chirayita (ROXP. EX Fleming) H. Karst


Annie Jessica Toppo and Sheela Chandra*

Medicinal plants is the essence of today’s therapeutic culture. In the due course of time, it a great need to produce such therapeutic agents which has multidi mentional medicinal value. These medicines should have ability to cure oxidative stress related disorders which includes cognitive ailments, cancer etc., with no or lesser amount of side effects. The present study aims to analyze stem extracts of Swertia chirayita and Ocimum sanctum in various solvents to understand the ability to cure oxidative stress related disorders. The capability of extracts has been analyzed by total phenol, flavonoid content, antioxidant and anticholinergic activities.  Antioxidant activity of all extracts fractions was measured in terms of ABTS, DPPH and metal chelating properties (FRAP). Enzyme inhibitory properties was measured using AChE (Acetylcholinesterase). O. sanctum in methanol extract exhibited maximum content both in phenol (152.7±0.0004 mg GAE/g DW) and flavonoid content (38.38±0.0085 mgQE/g DW). Maximum free radical scavenging activities was observed in O. sanctum through DPPH inhibition assay (IC50 12.55 µg/ml). Similarly in ABTS inhibition assay, total antioxidant level was IC50 41.8 µg/ml in methanolic extract of O. sanctum and in metal ion chelating assay, it showed 2.494 mg TE/g DW of the sample. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was highest in methanolic extract of O. sanctum (IC50 12.066 µg/ml) followed by S. chirayita chloroform (IC50 15.86 µg/ml). The results suggest that the stem methanolic extracts of these two species possess natural antioxidants and anti-cholinergic potential, which may be beneficial for the ailment of neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: O. sanctum; S. chirayita ; Antioxidant ; Acetylcholinesterase ; Neurodegenerative
Full HTML:


  1. Moyo M, Ndhlala AR, Finnie JF, Van Staden J. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Sclerocarya birreaand Harpephyllum caffrum(Anacardiaceae) extracts. Food Chem. 2010; 123: 69-76. Doi:
  2. Panchayat S, Sisodia S. In vitro antioxidant activity of SaracaasocaRoxb. De Wilde stem bark extracts from various extraction processes. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2010; 3: 231-33. Available Link :
  3. Singh V, Kahol A, Singh IP, Saraf I, Shri R. Evaluation of anti-amnesic effect of extracts of selected Ocimum species using in-vitro and in-vivo models. J. Ethnop harmacol. 2016; 193: 490-99. Doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.10.026
  4. Dutta AK, Gope PS, Maknoon S, Rahman S, Siddiquee MA, Kabir Y. Effect of solvent extraction on phenolic content, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of Swertiachirata. Int. J. Drug Dev. Res. 2012; 4: 317-25.Available Link:
  5. Bhargava S, Rao PS, Bhargava P, Shukla S. Antipyretic potential of Swertia chirata Buch Ham. root extract.  Sci. Pharm. 2009; 77: 617-23. Doi:
  6. Sultana B, Anwar F, Ashraf M. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. Molecules 2009; 14: 2167-2180.Doi:
  7. Muddathir AM, Yamauchi K, Batubara I, Mohieldin EA, Mitsunaga T. Anti-tyrosinase, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.  S. Afr. J. Bot. 2017; 109: 9-15. Doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2016.12.013
  8. Laghari AQ, Memon S, Nelofar A, Laghari AH. Extraction, identification and antioxidative properties of the flavonoid-rich fractions from leaves and flowers of Cassia angustifolia . Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2011;2: 871-78.Doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.28100
  9. Yun KW, Jeong HJ, Kim JH. The influence of the growth season on the antimicrobial and antioxidative activity in Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Ind. Crop Prod.  2008; 27: 69-74.Doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.07.017
  10. Padalia H, Poptani R, Chanda S. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant properties of solvent extracts of selected medicinal plants and their synergistic efficacy. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plant.  2018; 24: 15-27.Doi: 10.1080/10496475.2017.1357159
  11. Lee SH, Bafna MR, Sancheti SS, Seo SY. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties of Rhododendron yedoense var. Poukhanense bark.  J. Med. Plant Res. 2011; 5: 248-54.Available Link:
  12. Roy P, Abdulsalam FI, Pandey DK, Bhattacharjee A, Eruvaram NR, Malik T.   Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of two traditional medicinal plants of India: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita. Pharmacogn. Res.2015; 7:57-62.Doi: 10.4103%2F0974-8490.157997
  13. Kusindarta DL, Wihadmadyatami H, Jadi AR, Karnati S, Lochnit G, Hening P, Haryanto A, Auriva MB and Purwaningrum M. Ethanolic extract Ocimum sanctum enhances cognitive ability from young adulthood to middle aged mediated by increasing choline acetyltransferase activity in rat model. Res. Vet. Sci. 2018; 118: 431-38.Doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2018.04.005
  14. Raghavendra M, Maiti R, Kumar S, Acharya SB. Role of Ocimum sanctum in the experimental model of Alzheimer’s disease in rats. Int. J. Green Pharm. 2006; 3: 6-15.Doi: 10.22377/ijgp.v3i1.49
  15. Rashid S, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Anwar A, Sultana S, Tabassum S, Ahmed SN. Ethnopharmacological evaluation and antioxidant activity of some important herbs used in traditional medicines.  J. Tradit. Chin. Med. 2016; 36: 689-94.Doi: 10.1016/S0254-6272(16)30091-7
  16. Pandey DK, Kaur P. Optimization of extraction parameters of pentacyclic triterpenoids from Swertia chirata stem using response surface methodology. 3 Biotech. 2018; 8: 152-62.Doi: 10.1007/s13205-018-1174-6
  17. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Akhtar M. In vitro pharmacological activities and GC-MS analysis of different solvent extracts of Lantana camara leaves collected from tropical region of Malaysia.  Evid- Based Complementary Altern. Med.2015; 2015:1-9. Doi: 10.1155/2015/506413
  18. Shukla S, Mehta A. Antioxidant, total phenolics and total flavonoid content of the aqueous extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2017; 44: 929-938. Available Link:
  19. Zeb A, Sadiq A, Ullah F, Ahmad S, Ayaz M. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolicextracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus.  Biol.  Res. 2014; 47:57-62.Doi:
  20. Arora N, Tripathi D, Pandey N, Rai KK, Rai SK, Pandey-Rai S. Study of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and DNA-damage protection properties of some Indian medicinal plants reveal their possible role in combating Psoriasis. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. 2017; 5:141-149.Doi: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17618
  21. Garg P, Garg R. Phytochemical screening and quantitative estimation of total flavonoids of Ocimum sanctum in different solvent systems. Pharma Innovation 2019; 8:16-21. Available Link:
  22. Achika J, Ayo RR, Oyewale AO, James DH. Chemical investigation and antioxidant activity of fractions of Lannea humilis (Oliv.).Engl.  J. Turkish Chem. Soc. 2017; 4:563-72.Doi: 10.18596/jotcsa.288249
  23. Hakkim FL, Shankar CG, Girija S. Chemical composition and antioxidant property of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) leaves, stems, and inflorescence and their in vitro callus cultures.  J. Agric.  Food Chem. 2007; 55:9109-17. Doi: 10.1021/jf071509h
  24. Agarwal K, Singh DK, Jyotshna J, Ahmad A, Shanker K, Tandon S, Luqman S.  Antioxidative potential of two chemically characterized Ocimum (Tulsi) species extracts Biomed. Res. Therap. 2017; 16:1574-1590.
  25. Tachakittirungrod S, Okonogi S, Chowwanapoonpohn S. Study on antioxidant activity of certain plants in Thailand: Mechanism of antioxidant action of guava leaf extract. Food Chem. 2007; 103:381-388.Doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.034
  26. Nair SK, Ganesan K, Azalewor HG, Letha N, Gani SB. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Ethopian indigenous medicinal plants, Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. Ex Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. Int. J. Pharm.  Sci. Drug Res. 2016; 8:30-36.Doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-21
  27. Sethi S, Khanna S, Khan A, Hatti N. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of medicinal plants. World J. Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015; 4: 1403-13. Available Link: 00b7d533f10caf2696000000.pdf
  28. Kaur P, Dhull SD, Sandhu KS, Salar RK, Purewal SS. Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) seeds: in vitro DNA damage protection, bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential.  J. Food Measure Character. 2017; 12: 1530-38. Doi: 10.1007/s11694-018-9768-6
  29. Aydemir T, Becerik S. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of different extracts from Ocimum basilicum, Apium graveolens and Lepidium sativum seeds. J.  Food Biochem. 2011; 35: 62-79.Doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00366.x.
[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions