International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 12 issue 4, October - December, Pages:8-12

In vivo Antioxidant and Lipid Peroxidation Effect of Ethanolic Extract of whole Plant of Ziziphus Xylopyrus Retz. In Rats Fed with High Fat Diet.

M. Prabhu, Sureshkumar R.B and G.Alagumanivasagam

The study was carried out to determine the in vivo antioxidant and lipid peroxidation effect of ethanolic extracts of whole plant of Ziziphus xylopyrus (family Rhamnaceae). High fat diet rats showed significantly (P<0.001) reduced  levels of tissues enzymatic antioxidant and enhanced level of non enzymatic antioxidant (Glutathione). The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) are elevated in high fat diet (HFD) rats (group II) when compared with control group. Administration of ethanolic extract of Ziziphus xylopyrus in high fat diet rats were showed significantly (p<0.001) increased  levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione reductase (GR) and reduced the level of non enzymatic antioxidant. The ethanolic extract of Ziziphus xylopyrus in high fat diet rats were found lowe concentration of hiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) when compared with high fat diet (HFD) rats (Group II). The ethanolic extract of Ziziphus xylopyrus  showed significant (p<0.001)??? result than that of other groups. Based on the results, we concluded that the ethanolic extract of Ziziphus xylopyrus is a significant source of natural antioxidant, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. The traditional uses of the different parts of the plant for the treatment of different ailments such as obesity, urinary troubles, diabetes, skin infections, fever, diarrhoea, insomnia, digestive, and liver disorders(not needed) . It also possesses anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidepressant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The leaves contain quercetin. The fruits contain tannins, oleanolic acid,l-epicatechin, l-leucocyanidin and 3, 3, 4-tri-O-methyl-ellagic acid. The bark contains tannins, d-7, 3’, 4’-trihydroxy flavan-3, 4-diol and oleanolic acid. The stem wood of the plant is reported to contain alkaloids (xylopyrine-A and B), triterpenoids and flavonoids.

Keywords: Antioxidants, high fat diet, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, Glutathione reductase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase.
Full HTML:



  1. Kris-Etherton PM, Lefevre M, Beecher GR, Gross MD, Keen CL, Etherton TD. Bioactive compounds in nutrition and health-research methodologies for establishing biological function: the Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Effects of Flavonoids on Atherosclerosis. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:511-38. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.23.011702.073237, PMID 15189130.
  2. Verma SK, Kumar A. Therapeutic uses of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) with a note on withanolides and its pharmacological actions. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2011;4:1-4.
  3. Harman D. Role of free radicals in aging and disease. Annu New York Academy of Sciences. 1992;673:598-620.
  4. Prior RL, Cao G, Prior RL, Cao G. Analysis of botanicals and dietary supplements forantioxidant capacity: a review. J AOAC Int. 2000;83(4):950-6. doi: 10.1093/jaoac/83.4.950, PMID 10995120.
  5. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K. Wound healing effect of various extracts of Adhatoda vasica. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2010;1:530-6.
  6. Farahpour MR, Habibi M. &nbsp;Evaluation of the wound healing activity of an ethanolic extract of Ceylon cinnamon in mice. Vet Med. 2012;57(1):53-7. doi: 10.17221/4972-VETMED.
  7. Yamaguchi F, Saito M, Ariga T, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H. Free radical scavenging activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruitrind. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(6):2320-5. doi: 10.1021/jf990908c.
  8. Rabari H, Pandya S, Vidyasagar G, Gajra B. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigations of Cocculus pendulus (J.R. & G. Forst.) diels leaf. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2010;1(2):1-13.
  9. Nandakarni KM. Indian materia medica. Popular book depot, Mumbai. 3rd ed. Vol. 1; 1954. p. 242-6.
  10. Craig WJ. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr. 1970;70;Suppl:491-9.
  11. Part 1. Vol. 5. Department of ISM and H, Published by the controller of publications; Department of AYUSH. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Delhi: government of India; 2006. p. 47.
  12. X-Z. Anonymous. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials Series. Vol. 11. New Delhi: NISCAIR, council of scientific and industrial research; 1976. p. 123-4.
  13. Sudhakar Reddy C, Reddy KN, Murthy EN, Raju VS. Traditional medicinal plants in Seshachalam hills, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3(5):408-12.
  14. Mishra US, Mishra AM, Murthy PN, Bal T, Jena B. Screening of chloroform extract of Bark of Ziziphus xylopyrus Wild for Anthelmintic activity. Int J Pharm Biol Sci. 2008;2(2):103-6.
  15. Pullaiah T. Ziziphur xylopyrus (Retz.) Willed. Encyclopedia of world medicinal plants. 2006;5:2104.
  16. Sharma VK, Chauhan NS, Lodhi S, Singhai AK. Anti-Depressant activity of Ziziphus xylopyrus. Int J Phytomed. 2009;1(1):12-7. doi: 10.5138/ijpm.2009.0975.0185.05788.
  17. Mishra US, Murty PN, Parida SK. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Indian medicinal plant Ziziphus xylopyrus stem barks in experimental animal models. Elixir Pharm. 2012;44:7265-70.
  18. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. The Indian medicinal plants. Delhi. 2nd ed. Vol. 1; 1993.
  19. Jangir S, Mathur K, Goyal M, Yadav SK. A Review on Cocculus pendulus (J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.) diels: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016;5(4):672-81.
  20. Waynforth BH. Injection techniques Experimental and surgical techniques in the rats. London: Academic Press; 1980. p. 3.
  21. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods 11 Edn. In: Chapman, Hall, editors. New York. Vols. 4-5; 1984. p. 14.
  22. G.Alagu Manivasagam. A.Kottai Muthu, D.Satheesh Kumar, K. Suresh and R, -2010 volume: I: Issue-2. Manavalan Ipomoea digitata (Linn) in rat fed with high fat diet. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol;Aug–Oct:214-20.
  23. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane GH. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animals’ tissues. J Biol Chem. 1957;226:497. 17.
  24. Nichans WH, Samulelson B. Formation of malondialdehyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur J Biochem. 1968, 6;18:126-30.
  25. Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959;82(1):70-7. doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6, PMID 13650640.
  26. Kakkar P, Das B, Visvanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of SOD. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1984;21:130-2. 20.
  27. Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem. 1972;47(2):389-94. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(72)90132-7, PMID 4556490.
  28. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. selenium; Biochemical roles as a component of glutathione peroxidise. Science. 1973;179(4073):588-90. 22. doi: 10.1126/science.179.4073.588, PMID 4686466.
  29. Mavis RD, Stellwagen E. Purification and Subunit Structure of Glutathione Reductase from Bakers’ Yeast. J Biol Chem. 1968;243(4):809-14. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9258(19)81737-4.
  30. Abou Ghalia AH, Fouad IM. Glutathione and its metabolizing enzymes in patients with different beningn and malignant diseases. Clin Biochem. 2000;33(8):657-62. doi: 10.1016/S0009-9120(00)00181-8.
  31. Meister A. New aspects of glutathione biochemistry and transport selective alterations of glutathione metabolism. Nutr Rev. 1984;42(12):397-410. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1984.tb02277.x, PMID 6151157.
  32. Thampi HBS, Manoj G, Leelamma S, Menon VG. Dietary fibre and lipid peroxidation: effects of dietary fibre on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet. Ind J Exp Biol. 1991;29:563.
  33. De La Cruz JP, Quintero L, Villalobos MA, F. la Cuesta. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione system in hyperlipedemic rabbits influence of olive oil administration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1485:36-44.
  34. Batra S, Singh SP, Srivastava VML, Chatterjee RK. Xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation in Mastomys nataensis effect of dipentalonemaviteae infection. Indian J Exp Biol. 1989;27(12):1067-70. PMID 2633968.
  35. Valenzuela A, Lagos C, Schmidt K, Videla LA. Silymarin protection against hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by acute ethanol intoxication in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985;34(12):2209-12. doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(85)90421-6, PMID 4039940.



[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions