International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 12 issue 4, October - December, Pages:61-70

Ameliorative Effect of Urtica Dioica on the Hypothyroidism Induced By Propylthiouracil in Experimental Rats

Eman Hassan Abdel Aziz Sharaf

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica leaves aqueous extract (UD) on thyroid gland functions in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Control group: daily received i.p injection of saline for 4 weeks.  PTU group: (in drinking water to a final concentration of 500 mg/L) orally administered saline for 4 weeks. UD treated groups: orally administered 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg doses of UD for 4 weeks In blood samples, thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroxine (T4), and free thyroxine (fT4)), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), antioxidant elements (Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH)), and lipid profile (triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) was measured. The data showed that PTU decreased the blood level of thyroid hormones (T3, fT3, T4, and fT4), however increased TSH, significantly. The 100 or 150 mg/kg doses of UD remarkably increased the blood level of T3 and FT3. Also, serum levels MDA, total TAC, GSH, and lipid profile (TG, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C) was ameliorated. Thyroid tissues of hypothyroid rats showed flattening of the epithelial lining with several follicular cell degenerations, hyperplasia, cytoplasmic vacuolation and vascular congestion compared to the control group. Administration of UD ameliorated these changes with the 150 mg/kg being the most effective. The aqueous extract of UD could restore thyroid hormone profile, lipid profile and antioxidant factors in the hypothyroid rats in a dose-dependent manner.

Keywords: Urtica dioica, Aqueous extract, PTU-induced hypothyroidism, Rats, thyroid hormones
Full HTML:



  1. Chaker L, Bianco AC, Jonklaas J, Peeters RP. Hypothyroidism. Lancet;10101- 6736(17):1550–156230703-1, doi: 10.1016/S0140, PMID 2017390.
  2. Ferreira E, Silva AE, Serakides R, Gomes AES, Cassali GD. Model of induction of thyroid dysfunctions in adult female mice. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2007;59(5):1245-9. doi: 10.1590/S0102-09352007000500022.
  3. Schlenker EH. Effects of hypothyroidism on the respiratory system and control of breathing: human studies and animal models. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;181(2):123-31. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2012.02.007, PMID 22394514.
  4. Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Ntalles K. Hypothyroidism - new aspects of an old disease. Hippokratia. 2010;14(2):82-7. PMID 20596261.
  5. Ashwini S, Bobby Z, Sridhar MG, Cleetus CC. Insulin plant (Costus pictus) extract restores thyroid hormone levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Pharmacognosy Res. 2017;9(1):51-9. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.199766, PMID 28250654.
  6. Duntas LH. Thyroid disease and lipids. Thyroid. 2002;12(4):287-93. doi: 10.1089/10507250252949405, PMID 12034052.
  7. Liu YY, Schultz JJ, Brent GA. A thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene mutation (P398H) is associated with visceral adiposity and impaired catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mice. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(40):38913-20. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M306120200, PMID 12869545, Google Scholar.
  8. Nazifi S, Saeb M, Sepehrimanesh M, Poorgonabadi S. The effects of wild pistachio oil on serum leptin, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile in female rats with experimental hypothyroidism. Comp Clin Pathol. 2012;21(5):851-7. doi: 10.1007/s00580-011-1188-5.
  9. Mistry D, Atkin S, Atkinson H, Gunasekaran S, Sylvester D, Rigby AS, England RJ. Predicting thyroxine requirements following total thyroidectomy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;74(3):384-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03940.x, PMID 21198738.
  10. Costantini A, Pala MI. Thiamine and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a report of three cases. J Altern Complement Med. 2014;20(3):208-11. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0612, PMID 24351023.
  11. Gärtner R, Gasnier BC, Dietrich JW, Krebs B, Angstwurm MW. Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(4):1687-91. doi: 10.1210/jcem.87.4.8421, PMID 11932302.
  12. WHO. Radix urticae. WHO Monogr Sel Med Plants. 2003:327-41.
  13. Moradi HR, Erfani Majd N, Esmaeilzadeh S, Fatemi Tabatabaei SR. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat’s prostate hyperplasia. Vet Res Forum. 2015;6(1):23-9. PMID 25992248.
  14. Motamedi H, Seyyednejad SM, Bakhtiari A, Vafaei M. Introducing Urtica dioica, a native plant of Khuzestan, as an antibacterial medicinal plant. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2014;9(4):e15904. doi: 10.17795/jjnpp-15904, PMID 25625045.
  15. Román Ramos R, Alarcón-Aguilar F, Lara-Lemus A, Flores-Saenz JL. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics. Arch Med Res. 1992;23(1):59-64. PMID 1308793.
  16. Bnouham M, Merhfour FZ, Ziyyat A, Mekhfi H, Aziz M, Legssyer A. Antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Urtica dioica. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(7-8):677-81. doi: 10.1016/s0367-326x(03)00182-5, PMID 14630172.
  17. Obertreis B, Giller K, Teucher T, Behnke B, Schmitz H. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid]. Arzneim Forsch. 1996;46(1):52-6. PMID 8821518.
  18. Hughes RE, Ellery P, Harry T, Jenkins V, Jones E. The dietary potential of the common nettle. J Sci Food Agric. 1980;31(12):1279-86. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2740311210, PMID 6259444.
  19. Parvinroo S, Naghibi F, Zahediasl S, Kamalinejad M, Sabetkasaei M. The effects of seeds with hot and cold temperaments on serum thyroid hormones, corticosterone and urine vanillylmandelic acid concentrations of healthy rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;156:216-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.026. PMID 25193009.
  20. Fattahi S, Ardekani AM, Zabihi E, et al. Antioxidant and apoptotic effects of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013;14: 5317-23..
  21. Parvinroo S, Zahediasl S, Sabetkasaei M, Kamalinejad M, Naghibi F. The effects of selected hot and cold temperament herbs based on Iranian traditional medicine on some metabolic parameters in normal rats. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014a;13 (Suppl);Suppl:177-84. PMID 24711844.
  22. Awaisheh SS, Khalifeh MS, Al-Ruwaili MA, Khalil OM, Al-Ameri OH, Al-Groom R. Effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96(1):9-15. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5442, PMID 23182355.
  23. Flecknell PA. Laboratory animal anaesthesia. San Diego: Academic Press; 2009.
  24. Whitehead TP, Thorpe GHG, Carter TJN, Groucutt C, Kricka LJ. Enhanced luminescence procedure for sensitive determination of peroxidase-labelled conjugates in immunoassay. Nature. 1983;305(5930):158-9. doi: 10.1038/305158a0.
  25. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, editors. 2nd ed. W B Saunders; 1994.
  26. Knight JA, Anderson S, Rawle JM. Chemical basis of the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction for estimating total serum lipids. Clin Chem. 1972 Mar;18(3):199-202. doi: 10.1093/clinchem/18.3.199, PMID 5020813.
  27. Allain CC, Poon CSG, Chan R, W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974;20:470-5.
  28. Fossati P, Prencipe L. The determination of triglyceride using enzymatic methods. Clin Chem. 1982;28(10):2077-80. doi: 10.1093/clinchem/28.10.2077, PMID 6812986.
  29. Lopes-Virella MF, Stone P, Ellis S, Colwell JA. Cholesterol determination in high density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin Chem. 1977;23(5):882-4. doi: 10.1093/clinchem/23.5.882, PMID 192488.
  30. Steinberg D. Metabolism of lipoproteins at the cellular level in relation to atherogenesis In lipoproteins.atherosclerosis and Coronary. Heart Dis. 1981;1(2):31-48.
  31. Ohkawa H, Ohishi W, Anal YK. Assay of lipid peroxidase in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979;95:351-8.
  32. Koracevic D, Koracevic G, Djordjevic V, Andrejevic S, Cosic V. Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54(5):356-61. doi: 10.1136/jcp.54.5.356, PMID 11328833.
  33. Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959;82(1):70-7. doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6, PMID 13650640.
  34. JMAASJS A. Effect of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism on reproductive effeciency of adult male rats. Basrah J Vet Res. 2013;12(2):113-21.
  35. Chaalal A, Poirier R, Blum D, Gillet B, Le Blanc P, Basquin M, Buée L, Laroche S, Enderlin V. PTU-induced hypothyroidism in rats leads to several early neuropathological signs of Alzheimer’s disease in the hippocampus and spatial memory impairments. Hippocampus. 2014;24(11):1381-93. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22319, PMID 24978200.
  36. Rizzo LFL, Mana DL, Serra HA. Drug-induced hypothyroidism. Med (B Aires). 2017;77(5):394-404. doi: 10.1016/S0362-5486(76)80011-8, PMID 29044016.
  37. Ahangarpour A, Mohammadian M, Dianat M. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcholic Urtica dioica leaf extract in male rats with fructose-induced insulin resistance. Iran J Med Sci. 2012;37(3):181-6. PMID 23115450.
  38. Mirazi N, Abdolmaleki N, Mahmoodi M. Study of Salvia officinalis hydro-ethanolic extract on serum thyroid hormone levels in hypothyroid male rat. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci. 2013;19(4):27-35.
  39. Rizos CV, Elisaf MS, Liberopoulos EN. Effects of thyroid dysfunction on lipid profile. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2011;5:76-84. doi: 10.2174/1874192401105010076, PMID 21660244.
  40. Khazan M, Amouzegar A, Gharibzadeh S, Mehran L, Tohidi M, Azizi F. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with dyslipidemia: Tehran thyroid Study (TTS). Horm Metab Res. 2014 Dec;46(13):980-4. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1389997. PMID 25369072.
  41. Daher CF, Baroody KG, Baroody GM. Effect of Urtica dioica extract intake upon blood lipid profile in the rats. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(3):183-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2006.01.010, PMID 16540261.
  42. Avci G, Kupeli E, Eryavuz A, Yesilada E, Kucukkurt I. Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessmentof some plants used as a remedy in Turkish folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107(3):418-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.032, PMID 16713156.
  43. Nassiri-Asl M, Zamansoltani F, Abbasi E, Daneshi M, Zangirand A. Effect of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholestrolemic rats. J Chin Integr Med. 2009;7(5):428-33.
  44. Jemai H, Fki I, Bouaziz M, Bouallagui Z, EL-Feki A, Isoda H, Sayadi S. Lipid lowering and antioxidant effects of hydroxytyrosol and its triacetylated derivative recovered from olive tree leaves in cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;74:440-52.
  45. Babu K, Jayaraai IA, Jeganathan P. Effect of abnormal thyroid hormone changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant imbalance in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):1122-6.
  46. Torun AN, Kulaksizoglu S, Kulaksizoglu M, Pamuk BO, Isbilen E, Tutuncu NB. Serum total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation marker malondialdhyde levels in overt and subclinical hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70(3):469-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03348.x, PMID 18727709.
  47. Zengin H, Baysal AH. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of essential oil terpenes against pathogenic and spoilage-forming bacteria and cell structure–activity relationships evaluated by SEM microscopy. Molecules. 2014;19(11):17773-98. doi: 10.3390/molecules191117773, PMID 25372394.
  48. Tahiliani P, Kar A. Achyranthes aspera elevates thyroid hormone levels and decreases hepatic lipid peroxidation in male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;71(3):527-32. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(00)00170-7, PMID 10940593.
  49. Houshmand F, Faghihi M, Zahediasl S. The role of oxytocin on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rats. Iran J Endocrinol Metab. 2011;12(6):633-40.
  50. Knipping K, Garssen J, Van’t Land B. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts. Virol J. 2012;9:137. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-137, PMID 22834653.
  51. Johnson TA, Sohn J, Inman WD, Bjeldanes LF, Rayburn K. Lipophilic stinging nettle extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, are not cytotoxic and may be superior to traditional tinctures fortreating inflammatory disorders. Phytomedicine. 2013;20(2):143-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.09.016, PMID 23092723.



[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions